Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) is a navigation device that must be installed on ships for small vessels, medium vessels and large vessels. Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) must be installed on the ship in accordance with the applicable rules of a ship classification body or agency.
Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) is an international satellite-based search and rescue (SAR) system that was first conceived by four countries namely France, Canada, the United States and Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) in 1979 which worked through the Cospas- satellite Sarsat The mission of the Cospas-Sarsat program is to provide SAR implementation assistance by providing ” distress alerts ” and location data accurately, measurably and reliably to all international commissions. The goal is to reduce as much delay as possible in the location of ” distress alerts ” so that the operation will have a major impact on increasing the probability of victims’ safety. The four countries developed a satellite system that was able to detect ” beacons” on the 121.5 / 243 MHz and 406 MHz frequencies. Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) 406 Mhz beacons for shipping are elements of the Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) which are designed to operate with the Cospas-Sarsat system. EPIRB is now a requirement in the international convention for ships of Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).Starting February 1, 2009, the Cospas-Sarsat system will only process beacons at a frequency of 406 MHz. Cospas stands for Cosmicheskaya Sistyema Poiska Avariynich Sudov while Sarsat stands for Search And Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking.
EPIRB Working Principles are When beacons are active, signals will be received by satellites then forwarded to Local User Terminals (LUT) for processing such as positioning, encoded data and others. Then this data is forwarded to the Mission Control Center (MCC). If the position outside of its territory will be sent to the relevant MCC, if in its territory it will be forwarded to the responsible agency.