Shipyard is one of the pillars of a country’s maritime industry, especially for Indonesia because Indonesia has a vast ocean area. However, it turns out that Indonesian Shipyard Market Share compared to the international ship industry is only 0.5% (OECD, 2009). This market share percentage is closely related to the analysis of the competitiveness of the national maritime industry against the regional maritime industry. The competitiveness of the national maritime industry has many sectors involved and involved. Map of the position of the national maritime industry can be monitored from the development of regional and international business analysis. The starting point for thinking related to competitiveness is a logical reason to develop the New Ship Building Industry in Indonesia.
The new shipbuilding industry has an impact on the upstream industry. The component and material industries which are the main suppliers for the new shipbuilding industry must be able to compete for this market share. According to preliminary data, Materials and Components of Indonesian New Vessels, up to 70% are still imported (https://kemenperin.go.id/artikel/7214/70-Persen-Komponen-Kapal-Impor).
From almost 30% of Components and Materials produced in Indonesia, in fact the Raw Materials are still mostly imported. The weakness of the Material and Component Industry in Indonesia is caused by several factors, including financing flexibility, lack of support from the upstream industry as a supplier of raw materials, Material Technology and Process Technology that has not been fully mastered, regulations that have not fully supported it, Tools and Software related to the Component Industry and Material that has not been fixed and disclosure of information related to data needed for analysis. One of the obstacles is that Supply Chain Management is still purely controlled by the market. And no less important is the perspective that should be uniform in seeing the challenges and opportunities of the shipping industry.
Although there has been an increase in the number of ships since the issuance of INPRES No. 5 of 2005 concerning the principle of sabotage, the level of industrial productivity / shipyard is still considered low. The shipping industry itself has several strategies related to flag obligations, one of which is to buy used vessels from abroad and convert them domestically. Another reason is the limited capacity of industries / national shipyards. On the other hand, shipyards must continue to operate, the impact of which is the tendency of shipyards to accept or participate in ship building tenders, which are basically not specific to the type of shipyard. Shipbuilding which has different tendencies of this type, requires its own energy for shipyards to adapt in the building process.
The government’s strategy is to strive to standardize ship types. At the initial stage, standardized ships were still pioneering. However, seeing the enthusiasm of national maritime industry stakeholders, standardization of this ship has a tendency to also touch other types of vessels, such as tankers, bulk carriers, container ships and passenger ships. Standardization of this type of ship will involve the main size and type of cargo.
One of the ways to increase national shipyard capacity and productivity is to revitalize shipyard facilities and equipment. This revitalization covers the application of facilities, facilities, infrastructure and equipment based on advanced technology. The hope is, even though the land and location of a shipyard remain, but by optimizing the ship production process with the application of the latest equipment and with the latest technology, it can accelerate the ship building process. This acceleration can be made possible with appropriate quality while minimizing the re-work process.
Engineering design innovation and development method innovation also have a vital influence. The ease in the ship building process can be detected since the design process. So the factor of difficulty in building ships is less. Anticipation of the level of difficulty in ship building that can be detected from the beginning, will make the ranks of operators / implementers of ship building more ready. The assumption that can be used is that difficulties cannot be eliminated, they can only be minimized, so that no difficulties are too difficult to solve.
Shipyard Industry, especially in New Shipbuilding, is limited by time, from Start to Delivery, so that the certainty of Supply and Arrival of Materials and Components is one of the factors in the success or failure of New Shipbuilding. Another obstacle is the process of producing new shipbuilding where production time is long and costs are high. The above factors are a common obstacle faced by Shipyards specializing in the construction of New Ships.
New ship construction is included in the category of “project-oriented oriented industry”, which has the understanding that all ships built are order-based (design to order and order oriented). Each Vessel that was built requires its own Development Strategy (Widjaya, S, 1996). Integration of New Shipbuilding is done internally, between shipyard management (planning, scheduling and productio
n control) with other production factors (material, manpower / labor, facilities, capital and information). Planning transformation in the production system requires a different building strategy, according to the characteristics of each Shipyard (Storch, 1995).
Opportunities for procurement of a growing fleet of ships. As per the 2006 Directorate General of Sea Transportation study, 2142 ships are needed. Where 432 units are new ships. And 1710 units are used ships. The types of vessels needed are general cargo, container, bulk carrier, barge, tug boat, tanker, passanger and ro-ro. Where is the domestic market share of 54% – 75% and exports / imports 2% – 20%. Another study by INSA in the magazine Global Energy, in June 2014, there was a 108% increase in the national fleet to 6563 ships, equivalent to 15.4 Billion US Dollars.
Shipyard Characteristics are internal factors, which consist of: capacity, productivity, capabilities, standards, experience, layout, and preferences. External Factor is understood as a technical specification in the contract (customer requirements). At the Process stage, Integration planning, scheduling and production control. This Internal-External Factor becomes the determining Matrix in developing new ship building strategies as output. This build strategy has a basis on quality, cost, delivery and HSE (QCD HSE).
Ship building strategy in terms of Strategic Management Science, divided into 3 levels (David; 1995) or 4 levels (Hunger and Wheelen; 1995). It includes: Corporate Strategy, Business or Functional Strategy, and Operational or Tactical Strategy. Each level has different characteristics, objectives, inputs, processes and outputs. Operational or Tactical strategies have routine characteristics, use the manager level down, to ensure the smooth process, simplify the process and speed up the completion of work, in the range of quality standards, where the development parameters are determined at the beginning of the process, assuming if the work is faster, smoother and more easily, then other parameters can be suppressed not to exceed the limit.