Considering the great environmental pollution caused by ballast water, the International Convention for Water Control and Management, which was held in 2004, requires all ships using ballast water to apply D-2 Standard or supplement with water treatment in year 2016. Technology in ballast water treatment required by IMO must be free of additives, chemicals and poisons.
One of the latest technologies used in ballast water treatment is using AOT (Advanced Oxidation Technology). This AOT technology uses Titanium Dioxide Catalyst which will produce radicals when irradiated. Radicals that survive for only a few milliseconds will function as cell membrane killers of microorganisms. That when filling a ballasting tank, water from the sea is passed through a 50 micro meter filter to filter large particles to avoid unwanted sedimentation and microorganisms. Then the water is flowed through Wallenius AOT which produces radicals that function to kill microorganisms that can still escape the previous filter. When discharging ballast into the sea (deballasting), water from the ballast tank is channeled through Wallenius AOT for the second time, thereby neutralizing ballast water from harmful microorganisms.
Regulation of the Ballast Water System.
The ballast water regulation enacted by IMO (International Maritime Organization) aims to minimize the risk of entry of new species into other waters. Standard D-1 (Ballast Water Exchange) which is still in effect today is carried out by rinsing ballast water three times in the sea more than 200 nautical miles from the coast with a depth of more than 200 meters. This method is very effective because organisms from coastal waters cannot seem to survive in the high seas or vice versa, organisms from the high seas cannot survive in coastal waters. But this method contains several disadvantages, namely (1) sediment and residue from the bottom of the ballast tank is very difficult to remove completely, (2) organisms that attach to the sides of the ballast tank or buffer structure of the ship in the ballast tank cannot be removed, and ( 3) can not flush if a big storm or waves occur during the voyage.
So that organisms that are in the ballast tank may be rinsed as the ship approaches the port. Another standard is Standard D-2 (ballast water treatment). This standard requires a treatment for ballast water which is found to contain more than 10 microorganisms per cubic meter with a size greater than or equal to 50 microns. With this treatment, there will be no more microorganisms that pass to the new environment, so that environmental damage can be prevented.
Ballast water treatment technology.
Maybe something that we do not realize that behind the abundance of resources from our vast ocean turns out to contain a threat of pollution? Imagine, as the largest archipelagic country in the world that crosses at 6 ° N – 11 ° 08’LS and stretches at 97 ° – 141 ° 45’BT, of course Indonesian waters are not spared from passing sea transportation that is so dense.
The number of ships that pass through these waters contains logical consequences, namely the potential for pollution both in ports, sea and air.
For example, oil spills from tankers, chemical spills from chemical tankers, release of SO2, NO2, and CO2 into the atmosphere from the engine’s exhaust gases, and the spread of invasive marine biota (invasive marine species) from ballast tanks. . The pollutants (pollutants) will accumulatively damage the ecosystem of the universe.
As shown in Figure 1, that when cargo ships such as container ships or tankers unload cargo, sea water is pumped into compartments in the hull of the ship, while when transporting cargo, sea water in the ship’s hull is discharged into the sea. Seawater that is pumped into the hull or thrown into the sea serves as a tool to stabilize and balance the ship.
A ship from the Indian Ocean sails through the Suez Canal, unloading cargo in the Mediterranean so that the ship needs to refuel tanks before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
A ballast water exchangeoccurs in the Atlantic Ocean in connection with going into the Great Lakes region. In connection with ships carrying wheat / wheat cargo, the ballast water is discharged into the sea. From the activities described above, around the world there are approximately 10 billion tons of cubic meters of ballast water transferred by ships each year.
The problem is that the water contains thousands of species of marine animals and marine plants that cause problems for the marine environment, human health, and threaten the marine economy which is dependent on a healthy marine ecosystem.
Another result of the arrival of foreign species into the new environment, ballast water discharged into the sea can spread infectious and deadly diseases, and poisons that can potentially cause health problems for humans and marine life. reply to the coastal waters has the potential to cause poisoning to marine life and microorganisms. This causes various problems, such as changes in growth patterns, hormonal cycle damage, birth defects, decreased immune system, and causes cancer, tumors, and genetic disorders or even death.
Foreign species can also stimulate the growth of marine biota and as a food source. Seafood becomes contaminated and unhealthy for human consumption. Not surprisingly, the spread of Cholera disease is a disease caused by marine pollution from ship operations.
Recent research by experts states that the bacterium that causes Cholera, Vibrio Cholerae, can spread through marine organisms that live in ballast water. Seafood compatriots, shellfish and drinking water are also contaminated when the ship discharges the reply water.
Read more : Quick work for ship ballast water treatment