There are Certification Authorities such as Lloyds, ABS, and DNV who class and certify anchors for use in naval and commercial ships.
There are two classifications used; HHP (High Holding Power) and SHHP (Super High Holding Power) and these are noted on the relevant certification.
There are also two basic categories :
1. Temporary Anchors
Used aboard for ships.
2. Permanent Anchors
Used as moorings where the vessel such as a lightship or an object such as a buoy is to be permanently sited.